How to write your own last will & testament


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A last will and testament is one of those things you probably don’t want to think about on a random Sunday at the park. It’s also one of those things you’ll be glad you did. Fun or not, we should all consider what would happen to our loved ones if we died. Writing a will is especially important if you’re a parent or have people who depend on you.

Full disclosure: Fabric offers a free online will you can create in five minutes, plus instructions on how to make it legally binding. In fact, more than 70% of the people making a printable will online with Fabric have kids under age 18.

But kids aren’t the only reason to make a will. Do you support a parent? A significant other? A sibling? Among customers under age 45 without young kids (who provided beneficiary details), 34% chose a parent as the person to inherit their assets. Meanwhile, 26% chose a significant other such as a spouse. Creating a last will and testament is important, and it can also be surprisingly simple.

What Is a Last Will and Testament?

A last will and testament is a legal document that determines what happens to your property if you die. It lays out whom your belongings should go to, how and who’s in charge of making that happen. Making a will also gives you the opportunity to name an executor (the person responsible for distributing your assets) and a legal guardian for your children.

How a Last Will and Testament Works

A last will and testament is a document you write when you’re still alive, and the instructions in it are carried out after your death. It’s an important component of your estate plan, which ensures your affairs are settled the way you want, including who receives your assets and who will serve as legal guardians to your dependents. A will can also include arrangements for surviving accounts or care of another individual, such as an elderly parent.

The last will and testament names another person as an executor of the estate, which is the individual who’s responsible for making sure the estate is administered. Typically, the probate court supervises the executor to make sure all of the wishes in the will are followed. To be legally valid, a last will and testament needs to be signed by an individual who’s of sound mind and mentally capable. Most states have other guidelines, such as requiring the signatures of two unrelated adults.

What Happens if I Die Without Making a Will?

If you don’t have a last will and testament in place when you die, that’s known as dying “intestate.” In those cases, the government will figure out how to deal with your property. Payable on death accounts, not governed by a last will and testament, will go to the people you’ve specified on those accounts. Otherwise, the courts will try to identify your heirs and distribute your assets accordingly in a process called probate. The state will also figure out who should claim guardianship of your children.

For many people, simply sitting down to think through these questions can make a tremendous difference. If your situation is complex or if you have specific questions, it’s a good idea to speak with a qualified legal professional.

Who Needs a Last Will and Testament?

Any legal adult might benefit from a will, particularly if they want to lay out their last wishes and what should be done with their assets if they were to pass away. Wills are particularly important, however, for parents and those with financial dependents. If someone depends on you financially, a will can grant you the peace of mind that you’ve arranged to provide for them in your absence. If you have children under 18, a will can be a crucial way to designate the person you’d like to be your kids’ legal guardian if you (and their other parent) were no longer around.

Why Is a Will Important?

First, a will allows you to lay out your wishes for your estate and your children’s legal guardians. Beyond that, if you didn’t have a will and your estate went to probate, you wouldn’t be able to leave assets to non-relatives. Similarly, you wouldn’t be able to cut certain relatives out of your estate. That’s because courts typically defer to who’s most closely related to you rather than any nuance of feeling you might have had with that person.

Who Can Make a Last Will and Testament?

In broad terms, you should be able to make a will if you’re of legal age (for the most part, that means 18 years old). You also should be of “sound mind.” What does that entail?

  • You understand what a will is and what the document means before you sign it.

  • You know the people listed in your will and what your relationship is to them.

  • You grasp what your assets are, in terms of type and amounts, and this reflects how you want to pass those assets down.

Note that there could be exceptions to the age qualification if you are married, a member of the military or are legally emancipated.

How to Write a Will

When you’re learning how to write a will, one of the most important things is to simply get started.

Decide whether you want to hire a lawyer or write your own will online. If you have a more complicated financial situation, you may want to use a lawyer to write a will. If you’re looking for a convenient solution and have an uncomplicated estate, you can create a will online.


Identify your will beneficiaries. Next, you’ll want to identify your beneficiaries (the people who will inherit the things you’ve left behind). Usually, people leave their assets to their immediate families, such as a spouse or children. You can also leave your assets to more than one person and decide how to split up your estate.

Choose a legal guardian for your child. If you have a child, it’s important to choose the person who would take care of your kids if worst came to worst. In case the person you chose isn’t available (for example, they have also passed away or can no longer take care of your children), consider including an alternate option. It’s also a good idea to talk to these individuals beforehand to make sure they’re willing to become legal guardians to your kids if anything happens to you before they’re legal adults.

Decide on an executor for your estate. Under the supervision of the probate court, your executor or personal representative will ensure all your wishes are carried out. Make sure to check with this individual before you list them as an executor and confirm they have a copy of your will.

Consider other wishes. Along with identifying an executor, beneficiaries and a legal guardian, you can include other (often non-binding) wishes on your last will and testament, such as who should take care of your pets if you pass, or any particular instructions about your funeral.

Sign your last will and testament. To be legal—in other words, to ensure your wishes get carried out—your last will and testament needs to be signed. Your state may have specific guidelines about what makes a will legal, so do your research to make sure you follow instructions properly.

Find two witnesses. You’ll need witnesses to sign your will, typically two adults who aren’t mentioned in your will. Follow your state’s instructions for making your will legal.

Get your will notarized. If your state requires it, then you’ll want to get your will notarized. Most states don’t require this step, but getting a notarized self-proving affidavit can make the probate process smoother down the road.

Information You’ll Need for Writing a Will

  • Your assets: That includes bank account balances, real estate, investments, retirement plans, life insurance policies, artwork and anything else you’re leaving behind.
  • Your debts: Your last will and testament can help establish how your estate should settle your debts. First, your assets will likely pay for any probate costs and funeral expenses. Then they’ll flow to your outstanding debts. If you leave your beneficiary a house that’s partially mortgaged, will he or she have to sell it to keep up with mortgage payments?
  • Your beneficiaries: These are the people or organizations who will inherit the belongings and assets you leave behind.
  • The executor of your estate: You’ll appoint an executor who will make sure your wishes are carried out and your finances are in order. This could include making sure your beneficiaries receive the money you’ve left them. It can also include filing your final taxes, paying any bills you left behind and closing your financial accounts.
  • Your children’s legal guardian: This legal guardian will be responsible for your children’s welfare. That includes food, shelter, health and schooling until age 18.

Trust vs. Will

A will allocates money by naming the recipients of your estate. Meanwhile, a trust fund provides instructions on money that you want to go to a specific person in a specific manner.

There are many types of trusts, and one you may have heard of is a living trust, also known as a revocable trust. Instruments like these let you dictate how your assets get passed down. Examples might include leaving money to a special-needs child who could use the help of a trustee to manage his finances. You might also use a trust to dictate rules about how and when your money should be distributed. For example, maybe you don’t want your child to receive an inheritance until she turns 25.

If setting up a trust is something that you think is right for your situation, you should do so with the help of a qualified professional. A trust in no way replaces a last will and testament. A will is the only way you can name an executor and legal guardians for your children. Without a will, the state where you live will divide up your property and assets as it sees fit. In fact, a will is the most important part of your estate plan. Once you have a will, you might set up a trust because wills are subject to a probate court’s judgment. That means creditors, other relatives or even your children could challenge what it says during the probate process.

A trust, while more complex to set up, can bypass the probate process down the road

Who Should Be the Beneficiary of My Will?

When you’re thinking about how to write a simple will, the first thing you might think about is who to choose as your beneficiary.

On your last will and testament form, you can designate anyone (or multiple persons) as your beneficiary. Beneficiaries can include members of your family or friends. You can even leave assets to institutions like charities. If you want to leave money to a child under age 18, you’ll likely want to name a trustee to administer that money before the child is an adult.

In addition to naming beneficiaries of your will, you can also leave a bequest. That’s a specific item or asset you’d like to leave to a person or entity. Consider speaking to an attorney and/or tax advisor about any bequests.

What happens if your primary beneficiary dies? If this person passes away before you, you can change your will to choose someone else. If not, your property can go to a contingent or alternate beneficiary, essentially someone you’ve selected to be your second choice. If you haven’t designated a contingent beneficiary, the outcome would be dictated by your state’s laws. For more insights, check out our guide to choosing a beneficiary.

Sample Last Will and Testament

For a sense of what a last will and testament might entail, we created a sample will for a theoretical Jane Doe. You can see, for example, her selections for legal guardian for her children and how she’s chosen to divide her estate.

Pets, Funeral Arrangements and Other Considerations

Your last will and testament should address any provisions you need for your own situation. If you have any pets, especially ones with long lifespans (a horse, for example), you might consider including instructions. When writing a will, you might note who should take care of your animals after you die, and what money they’ll use to do so.

Your last will and testament form can also include your wishes regarding funeral arrangements, too. Do you have a preference on where your funeral should be held? Who should officiate? What kind of ceremony it should be? The average funeral costs somewhere around $7,000. Where do you expect the money to come from?

Special note: If you’re transgender, make sure your will reflects your identity properly. If not, any conflicting pronouns could be considered a discrepancy and make it harder to execute your last will and testament. (By the way, here’s what you should know about applying for life insurance if you’re transgender.)

You might also choose to pass down an ethical will, or a document that contains what you want your next of kin to know about you as a person, the traditions you hope they maintain, and the morals you want them to cherish when you’re gone and more.

What Kinds of Property Aren’t Controlled by a Will?

A will is, in a sense, a catch-all for your personal property and estate. That said, some kinds of assets skip probate and are generally not governable by a will. These include:

  • Life insurance benefits (here’s more on how life insurance interacts with a will)

  • Money in a retirement account like a 401(k) or a pension plan

  • Annuities

  • Property held in a trust

  • A home you own jointly with your spouse

Thinking About Your Digital Assets

If you were to pass away, what do you want to happen to your Facebook account? Does your spouse know the password to your laptop?

If you have particular wishes regarding your digital assets, you can include these instructions when writing a will. For example, you might tell your executor to close certain accounts or destroy specific files. Of course, you’ll need to provide your usernames and passwords to help them pull this off. A simple will template may not necessarily prompt you to include these provisions, but your last will and testament form can include any instructions you think are important.

Making Your Last Will and Testament Legally Binding

Each state has its own requirements for what makes a last will and testament legally binding. Generally, however, it’s simple: You’ll need to be of sound mind when you sign and date the will and have at least two disinterested people witness your signature.

When to Review or Amend Your Will

If your wishes have changed since you initially filled out your online will and testament, you’ll need to update the document. Whenever you undergo a major life event, it’s a good idea to make sure your last will and testament continues to reflect your wishes.

For instance:

  • Birth or adoption of a child

  • Marriage or divorce

  • Buying or selling a home

  • The death of one of your beneficiaries or executors

  • Major changes in your financial situation

Simply want to change something in your will because you feel like it? You’re free to do so. You could do this through what’s called a “codicil,” which is a document that lets you make an amendment to the last will and testament you made previously. Changes could include updating who you want your executor to be, who you want as your beneficiary or anything else. You would need to attach the codicil to the will and sign it according to your state’s laws.

How to Write a Will: State Law Varies


Your last will and testament will be governed by the state where you keep your primary residence (or the state where you pay personal income tax). It’s wise to familiarize yourself with any rules specific to the state where you live. For example, different states have different rules about holographic, or entirely handwritten, wills. Case in point: Texas generally recognizes holographic wills, while New York recognizes handwritten, holographic wills only in very specific cases.

Most states require two disinterested witnesses (meaning people who aren’t named in your will), but some also require notarization (like Louisiana). Here’s a general rundown for each state.

  • Arkansas: Take a look at Title 28. To make your will legally binding, sign it in front of at least two witnesses. 

  • California: These laws are in Sections 6100 through 6113. Sign and date your will (under the condition that you have “testamentary capacity”) and have it signed and witnessed by two people.

  • Colorado: Look to CRS Title 15 for details on the law. In Colorado, you can sign your will in the presence of two witnesses or do so in front of a notary public.

  • Connecticut: Find these laws in Chapter 802a. Like in many other states, you can make your will binding by signing in front of two witnesses.

  • Delaware: Title 12 lays out the rules in Delaware. In this state, you can just sign your will and have it witnessed by two people. 

  • Florida: Look to Chapter 732 in Florida. Execution of a valid last will and testament means signing in the presence of two witnesses.

  • Georgia: Check out Title 53. In Georgia, you can make your will binding by signing with two witnesses. 

  • Hawaii: Look for Hawaii rules in Chapter 560. As in many other states, your Hawaiian will can be executed if you sign in the presence of two witnesses.

  • Idaho: Rules about executing a will in Idaho are found in Title 15. In this state, you need to sign your will with two witnesses.

  • Illinois: Read up on 755 ILCS 5 to learn the details in Illinois. This is another state in which you just need two witnesses to watch you sign your will.

  • Indiana: In Indiana, look to Title 29. As the testator, you’d need to sign in front of two witnesses. You’re also free to create a self-proving affidavit if you choose.

  • Iowa: Chapter 633 is where you should look in Iowa. As with other states, you need to sign with two witnesses.

  • Kansas: Check out Chapter 59 in Kansas. In this state, you need to sign in the presence of two witnesses, who also sign.

  • Kentucky: Kentucky lists its regulations in Chapter 394. To make your will legally valid, you should sign in the presence of two witnesses.

  • Louisiana: You can find the statutes in CC 1570. This is one of the few states that requires notarization—so get ready to sign your will in front of two witnesses plus a notary.

  • Maine: For more nuanced info, read Title 18-A, Article 2. The basic gist? Sign your will in front of two witnesses.

  • Maryland: You can read the relevant statutes in GAM, Estates and Trusts, Title 4. In Maryland, your will becomes legally binding when you sign it in front of two witnesses (who also sign it).

  • Massachusetts: Take a look at Chapter 190B. To make your will binding in Massachusetts, sign it in front of two witnesses.

  • Michigan: The rules in Michigan are laid out in Act 386 of 1998. In this state, you’d need to sign your will in the presence of two witnesses, who also sign to verify they witnessed it.

  • MinnesotaChapter 524 is where you’d want to look in Minnesota. To make your will legally binding, you should sign in front of two witnesses.

  • Mississippi: You can find details in Title 91, Chapter 5. If the will is written and signed by the testator, you actually don’t need any witnesses. If it isn’t solely created and signed by the testator, then you do need two or more witnesses.

  • Missouri: Title XVI explains the statutes in Missouri. Essentially, you need to sign in front of two witnesses.

  • Montana: Check out Title 72 for details. In this state, you should sign your will in the presence of two witnesses, who also should sign.

  • Nebraska: Chapter 30 describes the rules in Nebraska. In this state, you should sign your will in the presence of two witnesses, who also sign it.

  • Nevada: You can read up on the statutes in Nevada Title 12, Chapter 133. In this state, you need to sign the last will and testament to make it legally binding, along with two witnesses.

  • New Hampshire: Relevant statutes can be found in Chapter 551. You should, in this state, sign your will in front of two credible witnesses, who should also sign.

  • New Jersey: In New Jersey, the rules are determined by Title 3B. You can legally execute your will in this state by signing it in front of two witnesses.

  • New Mexico: The laws in this state are governed by Chapter 45. This is another state in which you need to print and sign your will in front of two witnesses to make it legally binding.

  • New York: Wills in New York state must abide by the Estates, Powers, and Trusts provisions. To be legally valid, the signing of the will must be witnessed by two people who must also provide signatures.

  • North Carolina: The requirements for drafting a will in this state are contained in Chapter 31 the state statutes. The signing of the will must be witnessed and signed by two people to be valid.

  • North Dakota: In North Dakota Chapter 30.1-08 of the state statutes describes the necessary requirements for a will. To execute the will legally you may sign the document before a Notary Public or at least two witnesses.

  • OhioChapter 2107 of the Ohio state statutes lays out the necessary elements of a will in that state. You must then sign the document in front of two witnesses who must also sign the will for it to be legally valid.

  • Oklahoma: In Oklahoma, Title 84 details the requirements to draft a last will and testament. For legal execution, the will must be signed in the presence of two witnesses who are also signatories of the document. You may notarize it as well.

  • Oregon: Chapter 112 dictates the proper steps for drafting a will in Oregon. Two witnesses must be present at the signing of the will, and also sign the document themselves to make it legally valid.

  • Pennsylvania: In this state, wills must follow the instructions laid out in Title 20, Decedents, Estates and Fiduciaries. You must sign the will or sign by mark. The will can be signed by another person on your behalf so long as you are conscious and present for the signing. In this case, two other people must witness and sign the document.

  • Rhode Island: Rhode Island’s Title 33 provides the necessary requirements to be met in drafting a will. At least two witnesses must be present when the will is signed, and then add their signatures to the will.

  • South Carolina: The requirements for drafting a last will and testament in South Carolina can be found in Title 62 of the state’s statutes. In accordance with this statute, the will must be signed by you and two witnesses.

  • South Dakota: You can find the necessary details for drafting a valid will in South Dakota in Chapter 29A-2 of the state statutes. South Dakota’s rules about signatures and validity can be found here § 29A-2-502.

  • Tennessee: In this state, Title 32 is where you will find the necessary elements for drafting a will. The will must be signed by you and at least two witnesses, if the will is neither a nuncupative nor a holographic will.

  • Texas: Look to the Texas Probate Code for the requirements you must follow to draft a will in Texas. To be legally valid, the will must be signed by you and two witnesses who are at least 14 years old.

  • Utah: In this state your will must follow the guidelines set out in Title 75, and must also be signed in the presence of two witnesses who will then add their signatures.

  • Vermont: In Vermont, Title 14 explains what is needed for a last will and testament. To make your will legally valid, you must sign the document along with two credible witnesses.

  • Virginia: The elements necessary to create a will in this state are laid out in Title 64.2. To finalize, you must sign the will along with two witnesses.

  • Washington: Wills in Washington state must adhere to the instructions in Title 11. The document must then be signed by you and two witnesses to be valid.

  • West Virginia: Chapter 41 describes the elements necessary to complete a will. The will must contain your signature and that of two witnesses to be valid.

  • Wisconsin: All of the details to create a last will and testament in Wisconsin can be found in Chapter 583. The will is made legally valid by the testator adding their signature along with two witnesses.

  • Wyoming: In this state, Title 2 outlines how to draft a will. Upon completion, you must sign it along with two witnesses.

If you have specific questions about your state’s requirements, we suggest you reach out to a qualified attorney.

Frequently Asked Questions: Is there a difference between a will, a last will and testament, and a living will?

1. Will vs. Last Will and Testament

The term “will,” as we use it, is interchangeable with “last will and testament.” Both refer to a document that determines what happens to your property if you die. It lays out whom your belongings should go to, how and who’s in charge of making that happen. Making a will also gives you the opportunity to name an executor (the person responsible for distributing your assets) and a legal guardian for your children.

2. Will vs. Living Will

There is, however, a major difference between this and a living will. A living will, which is also sometimes known as a healthcare directive, lets your loved ones know about any health care decisions that you’d like to be made while you’re alive, in the event that you’re unable to communicate these wishes when the time comes.

3. Do I really need a will?

Short answer? Probably, yes. Having a will clears a lot of red tape for your friends and family. It doesn’t even have to take that long. Fabric’s researchers found that more than 75% of customers created a will online in under ten minutes. Here are six reasons you might need a will.

4. How much does it cost to make a will?

If you were to work with an estate planning attorney, your will could cost anywhere from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars. Generally speaking, lawyers often charge a few hundred dollars per hour.

5. Where should I keep my will?

It’s important to store your will somewhere safe, where your survivors know how to find it. That could be a safe, or a high shelf in a cabinet, or the county clerk’s office. The choice is yours, as long as you give where to store your will some careful thought.

6. How should I choose my beneficiaries?

You can name (or exclude) whomever you want and divide your estate however works for you. Close relatives like a spouse and kids are often the top choices for beneficiaries. You don’t need to stop at close relatives, though. You can name friends, a business partner or even charitable organizations.

If you have questions about writing your will, it’s a good idea to speak to an estate planning attorney, especially if you’d like to set up complex instructions.

Check out our guide to naming your will beneficiary.

7. What are the executor’s responsibilities?

Being named an executor of a will is a big honor, but it’s also a big responsibility. If you’ve been named the executor of an estate, duties include making sure all of your loved one’s belongings are collected and distributed in accordance with their wishes. We’ve laid out seven steps to executing an estate.

8. Isn’t it awkward to ask someone to take my kids if I die?

There’s really no wrong way to ask someone to serve as a legal guardian for your kids. Most people will be flattered. What bigger compliment could you give someone than entrusting them with your child’s future?

9. Do I need a will if I have a payable-on-death (POD) account?

Most people would benefit from both a payable on death designation and a will. POD accounts are better for quick cash for people handling your final affairs or counting on money for bills, while your will lets you get into clearer detail about the more nuanced aspects of settling your estate. Dive deeper into how you should think about a POD account vs. a will.

10. What is probate, exactly? And should I try to avoid it?

Probate is the legal process of administering a person’s estate after their death. If you have a last will and testament, the probate process will involve proving that your will is legally valid, executing your instructions and paying applicable taxes. Having a clearly written will is one way to make the probate process easier for your loved ones. After all, your will doesn’t only specify who should inherit what. It also designates who you’d like to take care of your kids if both parents were to pass away, plus the executor who should fulfill the instructions in your will.

Learn more about the probate process.

11. What’s the difference between a will and power of attorney?

A will explains how you’d like to pass on your assets. Power of attorney documents let someone make legal and financial decisions for you if you can’t. We’ve done the research to help you understand the different kinds of power of attorney, and which may make sense for your situation. You might choose to put a power of attorney in place for yourself, just in case. Additionally, if you have aging parents or other relatives, you might encourage them to set up power of attorney while they’re still able.

Read our rundown of the different types of power of attorney.

12. Can I have both a will and a trust fund?

The short answer is yes. A trust in no way replaces a will. A will is the only way you can name an executor and legal guardians for your children. Without a will, the state where you live will divide up your property and assets as it sees fit.

That said, having a will and a trust can help ensure that your money not only goes to whom you choose, but also in the manner you choose. Putting money in a trust lets you pass property to someone in a structured way, where you can impose rules. For example, you might say that your beneficiary can’t use these funds to pay off debt. Or, you might impose rules on how old the beneficiary needs to be before she gains control over the money.

Here’s the scoop on trust funds.

13. What if I have a blended family?

Creating a robust estate plan helps to ensure your wishes are carried out and that all parties get their fair share. While every blended family has its unique circumstances, there are three main areas to think about:

  • Legal guardianship

  • Passing on assets to minor children

  • Dividing your estate among family members

In cases like these, you’ll almost certainly want to speak to a qualified attorney to help you grapple with all the nuances.

We explored how blended families should think about estate planning.

14. Can I disinherit someone?

It’s up to you who to include in your will, and who not to include. That said, there may be some legal limitations in place to protect spouses and minor children. If your goal is to disinherit one of your kids or to give to them unequally, make sure that intention is very clear in your will.

15. What are some things that could invalidate my will?

The probate process is where a judge certifies that your will is valid. A few possible reasons why your will could be deemed invalid might include things like:

  • Mental incompetence: To be mentally competent, you’ll generally need to understand what it is you own, who your relatives are, what your relationship is with the beneficiaries you’ve chosen, what your last will and testament actually says, and what that means. In some states, there may be additional rules around how to define “mental competence,” such as excluding people who are experiencing hallucinations or delusions. A lawyer can help you understand the guidelines in your state.

  • Previous wills: If you have another version of your will circulating out there, there could be some confusion about which one is valid. Once you’ve updated one version of your will, it’s often suggested that you destroy all other copies of your outdated will to make your intentions clear.

  • Improper witnesses: In most places, you need two witnesses over age 18. They, too, need to be mentally competent and observe you signing your will.

This is not an exhaustive list and there may be other factors considered by the court. For greater nuance on your own situation, we recommend you speak to an attorney.

16. What should I never put in my will?

Wills cover lots of ground, but they shouldn’t be kitchen-sink documents, either.

Last requests such as funeral plans shouldn’t be in your actual last will and testament, though you can often include an additional document stating your wishes.

You shouldn’t list life insurance policies in your will, either. That’s because life insurance benefits don’t go through probate, since they’re a contract directly between you and the insurer. If you have a term life insurance policy and pass away during the term of your coverage, the insurer will pay a “death benefit” to the beneficiary you’ve chosen. With whole life insurance, your insurance never expires, as long as you’re current on your monthly premium payments. Either way, the proceeds skip the probate process and aren’t included in your will. (Here’s more on term life insurance vs. whole life.)

Ditto on retirement funds: Those also skip probate and therefore should generally not be included in your will.

It’s generally best not to list jointly held property in your individual will, either, as rights of survivorship mean that your co-owner will simply continue to own the asset after your passing. For example, if you co-own a house, your co-owner would still own it even after your passing.

And this may go without saying, but hold off on any illegal items or requests. You shouldn’t exactly bequeath your collection of drugs or illegal firearms in your will.

17. Can I make a will without a lawyer?

If you have a really simple financial situation—for example, you have few assets, don’t have children and are planning on leaving everything to one sibling—you may be OK creating a will on your own. Of course, there are many reasons to consult a lawyer, too.

You might find an attorney helpful if you’re too busy to stay on top of updating your documents regularly, or if you have minor children, a large estate or complicated requests.

Note that Fabric isn’t an attorney and doesn’t provide legal advice. Here’s more on when you do (and don’t) need a lawyer to write your will.

18. Which state governs my will?

For the most part, your last will and testament is governed by the state where you live. So if your primary address is in Ohio, that would typically be the state that executes your will. If you’re not sure about which state you “reside” in, ask yourself: Where do I pay personal income tax? And for more specific questions, reach out to an estate attorney.

19. Can I just write a will and get it notarized?

If your will is written in a way that’s legally sound and follows the laws of your state, you pretty much can. This assumes that you’ve followed relevant rules to make your will legally binding. Notarization is required in some cases, and not required in others (though it’s a good practice and generally recommended). Here’s more info on “self-proving affidavits” and notarization.

20. What is the best way to write a will?

That’ll depend on your needs and preferences. If you have relatively simple instructions to pass down, you may be able to draft your will online. If your needs are more complex, you might want to speak to an attorney to help you craft the best document for your needs.

21. Is there a way to pass down intangible values, rather than just material possessions?

Yes. One way to do this is through a legacy letter, also known as an ethical will, which conveys the ethics and values you hope to pass down. This often includes advice, treasured memories and reminiscences about important life events. It can contain your ruminations on regrets, forgiveness, love, mentors, cultural beliefs, morals and ethics, ancestry, and how you would like to be remembered.

22. Can I do my own last will and testament?

Anyone can make their own will and testament, but it won’t be useful unless it’s official. Make sure to follow your state’s requirements. If you don’t, the court could find it invalid, and your assets could get distributed differently than you planned. If your wishes are complicated or you have a large estate, you may want to talk to a lawyer.

23. How do I write a will without a lawyer?

You can use online tools to create your own last will and testament, which will help make sure the language is clear and the document is legally valid. Ensure you follow your state’s guidelines, and when you’ve printed, signed (and potentially notarized) your will, be sure to store it in a safe place.

24. What should you never put in your will?

While your estate is yours to pass on as you please, there are a few things you shouldn’t or can’t include in your will. For example, you can’t leave property or gifts to pets, and you can’t designate your assets for illegal purposes. You also need to make sure your gifts, if they include conditions, are legal; marriage, divorce or a change in religion can’t be provisions on legal wills.

You also shouldn’t use a will to orchestrate care for a special needs person. Instead, you’ll need a separate document, such as a special needs trust.

Key Documents to Have Alongside Your Last Will and Testament

Filling out your last will and testament form is essential, but it’s not the only document you’re likely to need. You might also think about:

  • An advanced health care directive or medical power of attorney: This names someone you trust to make decisions about your health (would you want to be on life support?) if you’re not able to do so yourself.

  • A living will: Similarly, a living will records your wishes for your medical care if you become incapacitated. Are you religiously opposed to blood transfusions? Do you have specific rules you’d like your caretakers to follow?

  • A durable power of attorney: A durable power of attorney names someone to manage your finances if you’re incapacitated and can’t do so yourself.

You may want to consult a lawyer if you have questions about your specific situation. This is especially important if your last wishes are complex or if your estate is worth more than $1 million. Writing a will may not be the ideal of Sunday fun, but the relief you’ll feel when you’re done will last you weeks, months and years to come.


This article originally appeared on and was syndicated by

Disclaimer: Fabric exists to help young families master their money. Our articles abide by strict editorial standardsThis article is meant to provide general information and not to provide any specific legal advice or to serve as the basis for any decisions. Fabric isn’t a law firm and we aren’t licensed to practice law or to provide any legal advice. If you do need legal advice for your specific situation, you should consult with a licensed attorney and/or tax professional.

More from MediaFeed:

The 7 biggest retirement fears in the US


Americans have always struggled to save. Many live paycheck to paycheck, on the very edge of financial security. Historically, that savings shortfall has been all the more dramatic when it comes to saving for retirement.

But with the coronavirus pandemic and the havoc it has wrought on the economy, that retirement savings gap may worsen. Beyond the health impact, COVID-19 has created enormous economic uncertainty across the country. Market volatility has cut into retirement nest eggs for many. In the first three months of 2020, the average 401(k) dropped 20%.  And a provision of the CARES Act that makes it easier to tap retirement accounts is likely to send those balances even lower in the months ahead.

Unemployment has skyrocketed to record highs, hitting 14.7% in April. That means that Social Security’s coffers (which are dependent on payroll taxes) are taking a hit. Moreover, the recent CARES Act allows companies to delay Social Security payouts for up to two years. And while this doesn’t affect current beneficiaries, it highlights the pandemic’s impact on the already increasing Social Security funding deficit. With all of this uncertainty, it’s not surprising that Americans are growing increasingly worried about their retirement prospects.




According to the May 2020 Simplywise Retirement Confidence Index, 56% of Americans are more concerned about retirement today compared to how they were feeling about it a year ago.The survey also found that 69% of people in their 50s—who are nearest to retirement—are more concerned about retirement today.

The study, which was conducted as an online, random sample survey of 1,070 Americans ages 18+ between May 8-9, 2020, explored how people are looking at retirement, Social Security, and savings today, particularly in light of the current crisis. We break down our findings, from changing rates of postponing retirement to how people are drawing from retirement savings during the pandemic.




The survey found that 56% of Americans more concerned about retirement today compared to a year ago. Main concerns include fear that the Social Security trust fund will dry up before or during retirement (which 56% believe) as well as outliving savings during retirement (which 49% believe is likely).

  • 40% of are now concerned they won’t be able to retire at all.
  • Over half of respondents believe their quality of life with suffer after claiming Social Security retirement benefits.
  • 67% of working people plan to continue working in retirement.
  • One in three saved $0 for retirement in the last year. Women saved even less than men; 37% of women saved $0, and 50% saved under $500.
  • One in five people believe it’s likely they will draw from 401(k) for cash right now, including 1 in 3 of those who have lost work.
  • Given the current economic climate, 26% of respondents said they would postpone retirement altogether.
  • Of respondents in their 50s and 60s, 33% are now planning to claim their Social Security retirement benefits early.


Simplywise conducted its May 2020 Retirement Confidence Index online, as a random sample survey of 1,070 Americans aged 18 and above. The survey was fielded May 8-9, 2020. It was intended to explore how citizens are looking at retirement, Social Security, and savings today, particularly in light of the current crisis.

Here are the seven things Americans are most concerned about when it comes to retirement:




Among respondents not yet collecting benefits, 56% are concerned that Social Security will dry up altogether by the time they retire.

The concern is legitimate. According to the Social Security Board of Trustees, the trust funds responsible for disbursing benefits will be depleted by 2035. That does not mean Social Security will be gone altogether. But it does mean that its cash reserves will be gone, and it will only be able to dole out what it collects in taxes each year. If that happens, according to the Trustees, the Administration will only be able to pay beneficiaries 79% of the money they are owed. Its reserves are running out due to demographic trends. Generation X (the generation behind Baby Boomers) is much smaller, so while the Boomers swell the ranks of retirement beneficiaries, there are less workers paying in taxes to fund those benefits. This means current tax revenues won’t cover benefits and Social Security will have to tap the surplus. Add to that the current soaring unemployment numbers and it becomes hard for many to imagine what the future of Social Security looks like today.


Half of respondents are concerned they will outlive their savings in retirement.


monkeybusinessimages / istockphoto


Paying everyday bills, particularly medical bills, is a great anxiety. Over 50% of people in their 50s reported being concerned about their ability to pay for medical and daily living expenses in retirement. Repaying lenders is another concern, with 28% concerned about having too much debit in retirement.


monkeybusinessimages / istockphoto


For those not yet claiming Social Security benefits, financial concerns are the greatest anxiety as they think about retirement.

An incredible 40% of respondents to the Simplywise survey reported that they do not believe they will be able to retire at all.


DragonImages / istockphoto


Over half of all respondents believe their quality of life will suffer after they begin collecting Social Security. For those not currently collecting retirement benefits, 58% believe those benefits won’t allow them to maintain the same quality of life they enjoy today.

Looking at the average Social Security benefit—$1,503 per month in January of this year—it comes as no surprise. Especially given that, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average American spends $5,102 per month.

Women were less confident than men that their savings and benefits would get them through retirement. Just 41% of women, compared to 55% of men, believed their retirement income would let them maintain their same lifestyle.


Of course, even beyond financial concerns, there are other realities to face in entering the next phase of one’s life. Twenty five percent of respondents are worried about feeling bored or lonely once they retire.

In fact, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, about one in five adults 65 to 74 years old lives alone. That figure doubles to around four in ten for those 85 and older. And while living alone does not necessarily result in social isolation, the reality is that with age, social contact does typically increase. This can be due to factors like decreased health or mobility; family living far away; the death of friends or family members.

And loneliness and isolation can actually have a deep impact on health and even finances for those in retirement. A study from AARP estimated that social isolation costs $6.7 billion to Medicare every year. The study found loneliness to be a risk factor in health conditions including arthritis, high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes.


The reality is that the economy today is hurting Americans across the country, regardless of where one is from or how much one makes.  For starters, job security is of course a grave challenge for Americans today, which may likely continue. This reality is even more stark for pre-retirees and seniors. In fact, 30% of workers over the age of 62 have recently been laid off or furloughed due to coronavirus. And 38% of workers over 65 have recently been laid off or furloughed.

Of those still working, thirty percent believe it is likely they will be laid off or have their income reduced within the next six months. Half of those currently furloughed believe they will lose their jobs or have their income cut by the Fall.

Given the current economic climate, one in ten respondents are planning to dip into their emergency savings. And one in five Americans believe they will have to draw from their 401(k). For those recently furloughed, 20% believe they will have to tap their retirement savings now. And half of those who recently lost their jobs are now planning to withdraw from their 401(k). If many withdraw, that alone could have a dramatic impact on the stock market.

Social Security beneficiaries, many of whom are dependent on their fixed income and retirement portfolios, are also feeling squeezed. Of beneficiaries today, 11% are now considering selling their home to cover their expenses. Another 10% of beneficiaries are considering refinancing their home to cover expenses today.

Of course, some Americans see an opportunity in the down economy. While over 41% are now planning to save more in their bank accounts, 21% of respondents are planning to invest more money in the stock market today.

Women remain more fiscally conservative, however. Of female respondents, 45% plan to save more today, versus 37% of males. Additionally, just 17% of women plan to buy stock today, compared to 27% of males.

But the truth is that a majority of Americans are struggling. Four in ten respondents answered they would not have the means to come up with $500 in cash today. They reported that they would either have to sell something or go to family and friends for a loan to get that kind of cash right now.


So much has changed in the last two months about the way we live our lives, and indeed, what life even looks like in this new reality. The human toll from the coronavirus continues to climb. Some states are reopening, while others remain closed for what seems an indefinite amount of time. Policy changes meant to ease the burden on strained businesses and struggling American citizens can feel confusing to navigate. Uncertainty seems to be the only certainty.

So it is natural that many Americans are feeling at best concerned and at worst overwhelmed in thinking about and planning for their futures today. Yet that is why it is more important than ever to educate oneself on the options for retirement

Americans who are not yet retired but whose finances have been impacted by the pandemic can use this time to review their expenses. Determine how much cash will be needed in retirement, and make any necessary adjustments to savings and portfolio asset allocations. “For those who are eligible but not yet on Social Security, while we don’t necessarily recommend taking benefits earlier, this is a good time to consider how to maximize your benefits,” says Simplywise CEO Sam Abbas. “That means understanding and calculating your options for earned benefits, spousal benefits and survivor benefits.” The best way to understand what you’re owed is to use a comprehensive Social Security calculator and checklist.

Things are changing rapidly – but staying informed, aware, and empathetic with yourself and those around you will ensure that your life today and future planning remain on track.

This article originally appeared on and was syndicated by


Featured Image Credit: ebstock / istockphoto.